The Dirty War Years 1976-1983
Events
Dirty War/Guerra Sucia
Campaign by Argentina's military dictatorship against opponents to the regime. Between 1976 and 1983 an estimated 10,000 to 30,000 citizens were killed or 'disappeared'.
Death Flights
Practice of 'disappearance' where bodies would be thrown out of moving planes over the ocean, very often alive.
Falklands War/Islas Malvinas
Land dispute between Great Britain and Argentina leading to an invasion of the islands by Argentine army. Military's misjudgment led to dismantle of the junta. Hurt relations with Great Britain for years.
Night of the Pencil/La Noche de los Lápices
The kidnapping, torture, murder, and rape of a number of a group of young Argentine students (1976). Considered by some as the start of the Dirty War.


People

Abuelas de la Plaza de Mayo
A human rights organization with the goal of returning stolen and kidnapped kids to their biological families. Founding president Alicia Zubasnabar de De la Cuadra.
"Disappeared Children of Argentina." World of Forensic Science. Ed. K. Lee Lerner and Brenda Wilmoth Lerner. Vol. 1. Detroit: Gale, 2005. 207-208. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 24 Nov. 2014.
Madres de la Plaza de Mayo
A coalition of mothers of disappeared persons who were a very vocal in their opposition to the kidnappings. Brought attention from international aid groups.
"Disappeared Children of Argentina." World of Forensic Science. Ed. K. Lee Lerner and Brenda Wilmoth Lerner. Vol. 1. Detroit: Gale, 2005. 207-208. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 24 Nov. 2014.
Kissinger, Henry
U.S. policy maker who supported dictatorships in Latin America during his time as secretary of state and national security adviser.
Crites, Byron. "Kissinger, Henry (1923–)." Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. Ed. Jay Kinsbruner and Erick D. Langer. 2nd ed. Vol. 4. Detroit: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2008. 82-83. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 3 Dec. 2014.
Simon, Julio
Julio Simon (Julian the Turk) was a member of the Argentinean Federal Police and has been accused of the kidnapping and brutal torture of multiple people.
"Julio Simón Et Al. v. Public Prosecutor." ICD. T.M.C. Asser Instituut, 12 Nov. 2013. Web. 4 Dec. 2014. <http://www.internationalcrimesdatabase.org/Case/49>.
General Juan Domingo Peronremove- to background info
Thee time president of Argentina. Was widely popular even during exile. Policies were mostly populist and favored working class.
Méndez, Juan E. "Argentina." Encyclopedia of Genocide and Crimes Against Humanity. Ed. Dinah L. Shelton. Vol. 1. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2005. 63-65. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 8 Dec. 2014.
Emilio Massera
Part of the military junta, along with Jorge Rafael Videla and Orlando Ramón Agosti, that deposed Isabel Perón. Considered by many to have masterminded much of the Dirty War
Palermo, Vicente. "Massera, Emilio Eduardo (1925–)." Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. Ed. Jay Kinsbruner and Erick D. Langer. 2nd ed. Vol. 4. Detroit: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2008. 408-409. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 9 Dec. 2014.
Jorge Rafael Videla (General)
Dictator from 1976 to 1981 as well as Senior Commander in Argentine Army prior. Was in power during Dirty War and took part in activities.
"Jorge Rafael Videla". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2014. Web. 14 Dec. 2014
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/627906/Jorge-Rafael-Videla>.

Places
Places
Information
Citation
The Dirty War Years 1976-1983
ESMA(Escuela Superior de Mecánica de la Armada)
Worked as one of the largest detention center under the dictatorship. Held around 5,000 deseparacidos.
Méndez, Juan E. "Argentina." Encyclopedia of Genocide and Crimes Against Humanity. Ed. Dinah L. Shelton. Vol. 1. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2005. 63-65. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 24 Feb. 2015.
School of the Americas
Military training facility that trained Latin American dictators and officers in counterinsurgency tactics. Provided training to a number of now infamous leaders.
KNIGHT, JUDSON. "Americas, Modern U.S. Security Policy and Interventions." Encyclopedia of Espionage, Intelligence and Security. Ed. K. Lee Lerner and Brenda Wilmoth Lerner. Vol. 1. Detroit: Gale, 2004. 28-31. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 24 Feb. 2015.

Langley, Lester D. "United States–Latin American Relations." Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. Ed. Jay Kinsbruner and Erick D. Langer. 2nd ed. Vol. 6. Detroit: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2008. 178-187. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 24 Feb. 2015.
The Little School
One of the many prisons in which the deseparacidos were placed and tortured or beaten. Alicia Partnoy, one of the survivors, wrote about her experiences at the aforementioned prison in her memoir, "The Little School."
http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=185559556
Terms
desaparecidos/disappeared
National Reorganization Process